I worked in the survey and marketing research industry my entire career and went to the best program available for a masters degree in 1985. I worked in all facets of the business but, while I know something about it, I never actually performed custom research for a political campaign.
These techniques are not new. What is new is pop-up ads on cellphones and social media. Targeting, which is not new either, has improved with the new times associated with these technologies.
The technologies have taken advantage — if you can get someone to fill out a personality profile you are that much ahead of the game.
As for the election, as has been said many times before, I think Trump stole it. “Crooked Hillary” was sleazy but one could argue that it was also smart and effective. The Clintons have been tied to scandals and he took advantage of this opening.